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GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: available space in our landfill

2020年05月18日15:36 来源:小站整理
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摘要:GRE作文尽管考题公开透明,但庞大的题量,对于想要做好充分准备的考生来说,仍然算得上是巨大的挑战。为了方便广大考生准备GRE作文,本文将为大家整理针对题库中ARGUMENT类文章题目的满分范文,包含详细的逐段讲解和满分要素剖析,相信能给大家提供一些帮助。

GRE作文虽然有官方题库,但题目总数太多让考生难以做到全部练一遍,因此看完题目直接看对应的高分范文学习写法思路就成为了更有效率的做法。下面小编就来为大家提供ARGUMENT题库高频作文题目的满分范文赏析。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: available space in our landfill图1

GRE作文官方题库ARGUMENT题目:

The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of West Egg:

"Two years ago, our consultants predicted that West Egg's landfill, which is used for garbage disposal, would be completely filled within five years. During the past two years, however, town residents have been recycling twice as much aluminum and paper as they did in previous years. Next month the amount of material recycled should further increase, since charges for garbage pickup will double. Furthermore, over ninety percent of the respondents to a recent survey said that they would do more recycling in the future. Because of our residents' strong commitment to recycling, the available space in our landfill should last for considerably longer than predicted."

【满分范文赏析】

In this memo West Egg's mayor indicates that a variety of factors lead to an increase in recycling and a reduction in the amount of trash deposited in the landfill. The landfill, he states, should not be full for considerably longer than previously projected. To support this projection the mayor cites the following evidence: (1) a twofold increase in aluminum and paper recycling by West Egg residents over the last two years, (2) an impending twofold increase in charges for trash pickup, and (3) a recent survey in which 90% of respondents indicated that they intend to do more recycling in the future. For several reasons, however, I am not convinced that the mayor's projection is accurate.

【本段结构】

本文采用了标准的Argument开头段结构,即C—A—F的开头结构。本段首先概括原文的Conclusion,之后简要提及原文为支持其结论所引用的一系列Assumption及细节,最后给出开头段到正文段的过渡句,指出原文的Flaw,即这些Assumption无法让原文的结论具有说服力。

【本段功能】

作为Argument开头段,本段具体功能就在于发起攻击并概括原文的结论,即West Egg垃圾池的装满要比之前顾问预期的晚。本段接下来提到了原文中为支持之前的Conclusion所提供的证据,包括West Egg居民对于某些特定垃圾的回收量上升了,对于居民征收的垃圾处理费用加倍,以及最近的一项调查表明居民们在将来会做更多的垃圾回收。文章提及这些信息,为是在正文段中对这些Assumption即将进行的具体攻击做铺垫。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: available space in our landfill图2

To begin with, aluminum and paper may account for only some of the materials West Egg's residents can recycle. Perhaps recycling of other recyclable materials (plastic and glass) has declined to the point that the total amount of recycled materials has also declined. If so, then the mayor could hardly justify the claim that West Egg's residents are becoming more committed to recycling.

【本段结构】

本段采用了标准的Argument正文段结构,即先是提及原文的第一个逻辑错误,之后分析该逻辑错误的原因,接下来,进一步分析这样的错误为什么让原文的Conclusion不成立。

【本段功能】

作为正文第一段,本段攻击原文所犯的第一个重要逻辑错误——因果类错误。原文假设对铝制品和纸制品的废物回收工作能够减少垃圾的排放量。但是,这样的假设忽视了其它相关的因素,毕竟这两种特定的垃圾回收也许只占总垃圾回收的一部分而已。那么原文的结论就不能成立。

Another problem with the argument is that an increase in the amount of recycled materials does not necessarily indicate a decrease in the total amount of trash deposited in the city's landfill. Admittedly, if West Egg residents previously disposed of certain recyclable materials that they now recycle instead, then this shift from disposal to recycling would serve to reduce the amount of trash going to the landfill. However, the mayor provides no evidence of such a shift.

【本段结构】

本段采用了标准的Argument正文段结构,即先是提及原文的第三个逻辑错误,之后分析该逻辑错误的原因,接下来,进一步分析这样的错误为什么让原文的Conclusion不成立。

【本段功能】

作为正文第三段,本段攻击原文所犯的第三个重要逻辑错误——因果类错误。原文假设垃圾堆填满的速度仅仅和人们的丢放垃圾的习惯有关。但是,和第二个假设类似,作者忽视了和垃圾填方速度相关的其它因素。因此,原文并不能证明这样的假设成立,进而不能证明其结论有意义。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: available space in our landfill图3

Finally, the mayor provides no evidence that the survey's respondents are representative of the overall group of people whose trash goes to the city's landfill. It is entirely possible that people inclined to recycle were more willing to respond to the survey than other people were. In short, without better evidence that the survey is statistically reliable the mayor cannot rely on it to draw any firm conclusions about the overall recycling commitment of West Egg residents.

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