GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享： cause of island species' extinction
- 2020年06月22日15:16 来源：小站整理
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Humans arrived in the Kaliko Islands about 7,000 years ago. Within 3,000 years, most of the large mammal species that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct. Humans, however, could not have been a factor in the species' extinction because there is no evidence that the humans had any significant contact with the mammals. Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the bones of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals. Climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species' extinctions.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.
In this argument the speaker concludes that humans could not have caused the extinction of large mammal species in the Kaliko islands. To justify this conclusion, the speaker points out that no evidence exists that humans hunted or had contact with these mammals. The speaker also indicates that while archeologists have found bones of discarded fish in the islands, they have not found any discarded mammal bones there. There are three reasons why this argument isn’t persuasive.
本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构，即：C – E - F的开头结构，首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句，指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。
First, the argument concludes that humans did not have had any significant contact with the mammals based on the fact that no physical evidence exists to indicate as much. The author overlooks the possibility that humans exported mammals during this time period or had some other contact that caused the extinction. Perhaps the humans took over sources of food or critical habitats, which allowed the animals to service. Without ruling out alternative explanations, the speaker cannot Support the conclusion of the argument.
Secondly, the argument relies on the assumption that without significant contact with these other species humans could not have been a factor in their extinction but the speaker provides no evidence. Perhaps humans drove these other species away from their natural habitat by intruding on their territory. Perhaps humans consumed the plants and animals on which these species relied for their subsistence. Either scenario would explain how humans could have been a factor in the extinction of these species despite a lack of significant contact.
本段采用了标准的Argument结尾段结构，即：C – S的结尾结构，首先再次重申原文的站不住脚的Conclusion，接下来给出给合理建议Suggestion。