- 2016年06月01日03:00 来源：小站教育作者：orangejojo
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The following memorandum is from the business manager of Happy PancakeHouse restaurants.
"Recently, butter has been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake Houserestaurants throughout the southwestern United States. This change, however, has had little impact on our customers. In fact, only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that an average of 98 people out of 100 are happywith the change. Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers do not distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term 'butter' to refer to either butter or margarine."
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.
1. False dilemma (极端选择).Some customers might be unhappy but didn’t complain.
2. Vague data (数据模糊). The author fails to point out the actual number of server who reported, and what percentage of the whole server group do they make up. Also, the author does not tell us the percentage of customers who do not complain, thus the conclusion that the change had little impact is unfounded.
3. False dilemma (极端选择).The fact that few customers complain when they are given margarine might be explained by other factors, e.g., they may prefer the lower price of margarine, or they have no time or disdain to argue with the restaurant.
The president of Grove College has recommended that the college abandon its century-old tradition of all-female education and begin admitting men. Pointing to other all-female colleges that experienced an increase in applications after adopting coeducation, the president argues that coeducation would lead to a significant increase in applications and enrollment. However, the director of the alumnae association opposes the plan. Arguing that all-female education is essential to the very identity of the college, the director cites annual surveys of incoming students in which these students say that the school's all-female status was the primary reason they selected Grove. The director also points to a survey of Grove alumnae in which a majority of respondents strongly favored keeping the college all female.
Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.
2. 错误类比。即使其他女校申请数量上升是因为采取男女同校政策，但这一定适用于Grove College吗?
3. 信息不完整。对于Grove College来说，是申请数量重要还是女校的特征重要?