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GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: cause of island species' extinction

2020年06月22日15:16 来源:小站整理
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摘要:GRE作文尽管考题公开透明,但庞大的题量,对于想要做好充分准备的考生来说,仍然算得上是巨大的挑战。为了方便广大考生准备GRE作文,本文将为大家整理针对题库中ARGUMENT类文章题目的满分范文,包含详细的逐段讲解和满分要素剖析,相信能给大家提供一些帮助。

GRE作文虽然有官方题库,但题目总数太多让考生难以做到全部练一遍,因此看完题目直接看对应的高分范文学习写法思路就成为了更有效率的做法。下面小编就来为大家提供ARGUMENT题库高频作文题目的满分范文赏析。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: cause of island species' extinction图1

GRE作文官方题库ARGUMENT题目:

Humans arrived in the Kaliko Islands about 7,000 years ago. Within 3,000 years, most of the large mammal species that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct. Humans, however, could not have been a factor in the species' extinction because there is no evidence that the humans had any significant contact with the mammals. Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the bones of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals. Climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species' extinctions.

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

满分范文赏析

In this argument the speaker concludes that humans could not have caused the extinction of large mammal species in the Kaliko islands. To justify this conclusion, the speaker points out that no evidence exists that humans hunted or had contact with these mammals. The speaker also indicates that while archeologists have found bones of discarded fish in the islands, they have not found any discarded mammal bones there. There are three reasons why this argument isn’t persuasive.

【此段结构】

本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构,即:C – E - F的开头结构,首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句,指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。

【此段功能】

本段作为Argument开头段,具体功能就在发起攻击。首先,概括原文的结论:人类不可能引起Kaliko(简称K)岛上大型哺乳动物的灭绝。接下来分别列举了原文为了支持这个结论引用的证据:一是没有关于人类猎杀或接触这些动物的证据,二是考古学家发现丢弃的鱼骨但没有发现丢弃的mammal的骨头。论据的归纳用于铺垫出正文段的具体攻击。最后点出原文存在逻辑错误,引出后面的分析。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: cause of island species' extinction图2

First, the argument concludes that humans did not have had any significant contact with the mammals based on the fact that no physical evidence exists to indicate as much. The author overlooks the possibility that humans exported mammals during this time period or had some other contact that caused the extinction. Perhaps the humans took over sources of food or critical habitats, which allowed the animals to service. Without ruling out alternative explanations, the speaker cannot Support the conclusion of the argument.

【此段结构】

本段采用了标准的Argument正文段结构,即:概括第一个逻辑错误的错误类型和原文犯错位置,接下来给出合理的理由和他因来反驳原文。

【此段功能】

本段作为正文第一段,攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误:因果类错误(忽略他因)。原文中虽然提到没有发现人类猎杀和接触的证据,但作者人为原文忽略了人类对mammal其他方面的影响。进一步,作者提出其他的可能性来证实自己的观点。例如,人类可能抢占了mammal的food或者critical habitat。如果没有排除这些可能的因素,就不能得出原文中的论断。

GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享: cause of island species' extinction图3

Secondly, the argument relies on the assumption that without significant contact with these other species humans could not have been a factor in their extinction but the speaker provides no evidence. Perhaps humans drove these other species away from their natural habitat by intruding on their territory. Perhaps humans consumed the plants and animals on which these species relied for their subsistence. Either scenario would explain how humans could have been a factor in the extinction of these species despite a lack of significant contact.

【此段结构】

本段采用了标准的Argument结尾段结构,即:C – S的结尾结构,首先再次重申原文的站不住脚的Conclusion,接下来给出给合理建议Suggestion。

【此段功能】

本段作为Argument结尾段,具体功能就总结归纳+建议措施,首先再次重申原文的论断是没有说服力的。接下来作者给出几条建议:一是作者需要排除人类把mammal或它们的骨头带走的可能性,二是要知道当时人类和灭绝动物的饮食习惯,三是要知道灭绝的mammal是否以被发现骨头的鱼类为食。这几条建议含蓄的隐射前面的错误,前后呼应,文章有力结尾,浑然一体。

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