GRE写作官方题库高频ARGUMENT题目满分范文分享：reduce operating expenses
- 2020年05月29日10:42 来源：小站整理
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The following appeared in a memorandum from the owner of Movies Galore, a chain of movie-rental stores:
"Because of declining profits, we must reduce operating expenses at Movies Galore's ten movie-rental stores. Raising prices is not a good option, since we are famous for our low prices. Instead, we should reduce our operating hours. Last month our store in downtown Marston reduced its hours by closing at 6:00 p.m. rather than 9:00 p.m. and reduced its overall inventory by no longer stocking any DVD released more than five years ago. Since we have received very few customer complaints about these new policies, we should now adopt them at all other Movies Galore stores as our best strategies for improving profits."
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.
In this memo the owner of Movies Galore Video concludes that in order to boost profits, Movies Galore's stores should cut back on operating hours and stock. To support this conclusion the owner points out that since Movies Galore's downtown Marston store implemented these changes, the desired results were achieved with very few customer complaints. While the plan of action seems to be a sensible one, the owner's argument relies on several unsubstantiated assumptions and needs to be further developed.
本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构，即：C – E - F的开头结构，首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句，指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。
本段作为Argument开头段，具体功能就在发起攻击。首先，概括原文的结论：Movie Galore(简称MG)应该通过减少operating hour和stock来提高利润。接下来分别列举了原文为了支持这个结论引用的证据：MG的Marston store做出了上述改变获得和很少的客户抱怨。论据的归纳用于铺垫出正文段的具体攻击。最后点出原文存在逻辑错误，引出后面的分析。
In the first place, implicit in the argument is the assumption that no other means of boosting profits is available to Movies Galore. While the owner has explicitly ruled out the option of raising its rental rates, the owner ignores other means: selling videos, renting and selling compact discs, candy, and so on. Without considering alternatives, the owner cannot justifiably conclude that the proposed changes are the best method to boost profit.
本段作为正文第2段，攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误：绝对化语气。原文中暗示“只能通过上述方法来提高profit”的说法过于绝对。进一步，作者提出了其他可以调高营业额的方法，例如raising rental rate, selling video以及renting&selling compact disc, candy等进一步反驳原文的绝对化语气。
A second problem with the argument is that it assumes that the proposed changes would actually enhance profits. It is entirely possible that the lost revenue from reducing store hours would outweigh the savings in reduced operating costs. Without a cost-benefit analysis that illustrates the significant numbers, there is no way to tell. Furthermore, perhaps Movies Galore customers are attracted to the stores' wide selection and so reducing the inventory may turn patrons off.
本段作为正文第3段，攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误：profit类错误。原文“the change会enhance profit”的说法缺乏证据。进一步，作者提出了其他不会盈利的可能性来驳斥这一观点，例如lost revenue大于reopating cost，或者上述做法会使顾客流失。作者认为，在缺乏cost-benefit analysis的前提下无法断定一定会盈利。
Two additional problems involve the downtown Marston store. First, the owner implicitly assumes that the store has increased its profits as a result of eliminating evening operating hours and stocking only newer movies. Yet the owner provides no evidence to support this claim. A second problem with Marston is that the owner assumes this store is representative of Movies Galore outlets in general. It is entirely possible that, due to its downtown location, the Marston store attracts clientele with specific habits. Or perhaps downtown Marston lacks competing video stores or movie theaters, whereas Movies Galore's other stores are located in areas with many competitors. Without accounting for such possibilities, the owner cannot support his argument.