2018GRE作文ARGUMENT官方题库满分范文点评：agriculture in Batavia...
- 2018年04月10日17:29 来源：小站整理
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The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a Batavia newspaper:
"The department of agriculture in Batavia reports that the number of dairy farms throughout the country is now 25 percent greater than it was 10 years ago. During this same time period, however, the price of milk at the local Excello Food Market has increased from $1.50 to over $3.00 per gallon. To prevent farmers from continuing to receive excessive profits on an apparently increased supply of milk, the Batavia government should begin to regulate retail milk prices. Such regulation is necessary to ensure both lower prices and an adequate supply of milk for consumers."
This editorial recommends that Batavia's government regulate milk prices to reduce supplier profits and guarantee an adequate supply of milk for consumption. To support these assertions the author cites the fact that over the past ten years the number of dairy farms in Batavia has increased by 25% while at Excello Food Market milk prices have doubled. The argument is nonsensical. Let’s explore.
本段采用了标准的Argument开头段结构，即：C – E - F的开头结构，首句概括原文的C(Conclusion)。接下来的一句话概括了原文为了支持他的结论所引用的E(Evidence)。最后尾句中给出开头段到正文段的过渡句，指出原文在逻辑上存在F(Flaw)。
本段作为Argument开头段，具体功能就在发起攻击。首先，概括原文的结论：建议Batavia(简称B)政府限制牛奶价格并保证牛奶的充足供应。接下来分别列举了原文为了支持这个结论引用的证据：过去10年B地区dairy farm数量增长25%，Excello Food Market(简称EFM)牛奶价格翻倍，论据的归纳用于铺垫出正文段的具体攻击。最后点出原文存在逻辑错误，引出后面的分析。
First of all, the speaker offer’s only Excello's milk prices, a local store, and hopes an audience to accept that the price, which doubled, reflects prices throughout Batavia. Basic laws of economics indicate that when supply goes up, prices fall. It is highly probably that Excello’s prices are a unique peculiarity and that the high price can be attributed to a local issue: transport, convenience, and so on. To the extent that Excello's milk prices are correlated with national averages, the speaker makes no effort to mention.
本段作为正文第一段，攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误：调查类错误(以偏概全)。作者认为“EFM牛奶价格double”并不能反映B地区牛奶价格的整体情况。进一步，作者提出引起B地区牛奶价格double的local issue来反驳原文中的观点，例如transport, convience等。原文更没有提出EMF价格和national average的关系。
In the second place, for the sake of argument, let us assume that Excello's milk prices do reflect those in Batavia. The speaker claims that milk prices are particularly "excessive" and assumes that milk-sale profits are going to milk producers. This has not been proven to be the case. Returning to basic laws of economics, if supply goes up profits go down. There is strong evidence that there are alternative causes for the rise in price and there is a great possibility that the producers of milk are not the beneficiaries of profit.
In the third place, the author assumes that an increase in milk prices results in increased profits. It is reasonable to conclude that while prices have gone up, profits have actually remained the same and the price itself is the result of increase production cost. Thus the strength of the author's claim of excessive milk-sale profits is totally unfounded.
In the fourth place, based on the fact that the number of dairy farms has increased, the author infers that the supply of milk has also increased. However, this is not necessarily the case. It is possible that dairy farm production has shifted away from milk to other dairy products, and that the supply of milk has actually declined over this time period. This scenario would make far more sense and would certainly find itself in accord with the basic laws of economics.
本段作为正文第四段，攻击文章犯的主要逻辑错误：错误因果。作者认为原文中“dairy farm的增加推出milk supply的增加”这一论断是有误的。进一步，作者提出diary farm可能从生产牛奶过渡到生产其他乳制品。