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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 斯洛文尼亚陷入经济危机

2018年02月02日13:22 来源:互联网
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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 斯洛文尼亚陷入经济危机图1

Slovenia’s first big crisis since independence

斯洛文尼亚独立后首遇大危机

Beautiful but angry

美丽表面蕴藏危机

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Slovenes have always felt rather pleased with themselves. Their country is beautiful, they werethe richest of the Yugoslavs and, after independence in 1991, they joined the EuropeanUnion, NATO and the euro.

斯诺文尼亚的国民们一直生活得幸福快乐。他们的祖国景色秀丽,是前南斯拉夫中最富有的国家,并在1991独立后加入北约,随后成为欧盟成员国之一,并规定欧元为流通货币。

How different things are today. Slovenes are angry and confused. Their prime minister is ontrial for corruption, unemployment is high, the country’s banks are teetering on the edge ofbankruptcy and a series of painful structural reforms lie ahead.

然而三十年河东,三十年河西。现如今,斯洛文尼亚举国上下充满着幽怨和迷茫。现任总理正因腐败问题接受审讯,国内失业率居高不下,该国的银行在破产边缘摇摇欲坠,而结构改革的道路上有一系列的挑战等待着他们。

In July Slovenia’s leading bank had to be bailed out to the tune of more than 380m ($478m) bythe government. Janez Jansa, the prime minister, has talked of a “Greek scenario” and haswarned that Slovenia will become the sixth European country to seek a bail-out unless hisgovernment’s reforms go through. The ratings agencies have downgraded Slovenia; many civilservants have had their pay cut by 7.5%.

在7月份的时候,斯洛文尼亚的主要银行不得不接受超过38亿欧元(约为47.8亿美元)的政府援助来帮助自己脱离困境。现任总理Janez Jansa曾谈论到一个“希腊场景”,并警告说,如果斯洛文尼亚不进行改革,它将成为第六个寻求援助的欧盟国家。而评级机构已经下调了斯洛文尼亚等级;许多公务员的工资也被削减了7.5%。

Even though Slovenia’s demography is terrible, it has until now had generous pensions and alow retirement age. As only 40,000 signatures are needed to call a referendum, painful reformsare easily blocked. A referendum that defeated an attempt at pension reform in June 2011 wasthe beginning of the end of the then government. The current coalition (in which a party ofpensioners plays a crucial role) has adopted draft laws on pension and labour-law reform,which will both be contested.

尽管斯洛文尼亚人口老龄化情况是十分严峻的,到目前为止,全国还保持着高额的养老退休金以及低龄退休的传统。由于全民公投需要40000人的签名,因此曲折的改革之路很容易遇到阻碍。2011年6月的时候,一项全民公投将当时被提出的养老金改革计划扼杀在摇篮里,这意味着当时政府失势的开端。当前的联合政府(一群退休人员在这其中扮演着关键角色)通过了养老金和劳动法改革的草案,这些都将会引发争议。

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 斯洛文尼亚陷入经济危机图2

Mr Jansa, a political veteran, came to power in February. He is on trial for allegedly taking bribesfrom a Finnish arms company. On September 5th the former head of one of Slovenia’s biggestcompanies was convicted of fraud. The Catholic church has been rocked by financial and sexscandals.

现任总理Jansa是一个政治老手,在今年2月上台执政。他在任期中因遭指控接受了一个芬兰武器公司的贿赂,现正接受审理。9月5日,斯洛文尼亚头号企业的前负责人被判欺诈罪。而天主教会一直也饱受金融和性丑闻的影响。

In this febrile atmosphere quarrels have been breaking out about who did what in the secondworld war. These altercations may serve as distractions from the country’s economic woes, butthey provoke much bitterness. In the political mythology of Slovenia’s right the ten-day warof independence in 1991 should take centre stage, not the tragic events of 1945.

这焦躁不安的气氛中,关于二战某些人所作所为也是争论不休。这些争执可能会分散他们对该国萎靡经济形势的关注,但是另一方面也会引起他们的哀怨。占据在斯洛文尼亚政治神话的中央舞台上应该是1991为期十天独立战争,而并非1945年的悲剧事件。

On November 11th Slovenia will go to the polls to elect a president. The incumbent, DaniloTurk, looks set for a second term. Under united leadership, Slovenia could recover relativelyquickly, says Sonja Smuc, who runs an employers’ association. It has several companies thatthrive abroad and its public debt, at 47.6% of GDP, is growing but far from critical. RenataSalecl, an intellectual, is less optimistic though. Many of Slovenia’s problems are similar tothose elsewhere in Europe, she says, and “soon we will reach deadlock.”

11月11日,斯洛文尼亚将会全民投票选举总统。现任总统Danilo Turk期许能获得连任。某雇主协会主席Sonja Smuc称,在统一领导下,斯洛文尼亚能较快恢复生产经营。斯洛文尼亚在国外有几家企业发展状况良好,并且其国债占GDP比重为47.6%,虽然不断增长但无大碍。Renata Salecl是位知识分子,对此不抱有乐观态度。斯洛文尼亚的所遇到的问题和欧洲某些地区相似,她认为,“我们很快也会陷入僵局。”

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