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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 脆弱民主制度下的选举

2017年12月14日10:47 来源:互联网
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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 脆弱民主制度下的选举图1

Helping Fragile Democracies——Why monitors matter

脆弱民主制度下的选举:为什么监管更重要

Foreign observers and local citizen-watchers can make the difference between a fair election and a disaster.

外国和当地公民观察员们能够对竞选公平与否产生很大影响。

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No one batted an eyelid earlier this year when Turkmenistan's strongman, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, was “re-elected” with nearly 98% of the vote.

今年早些时候,当土库曼斯坦铁腕人物Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov以近乎98%的支持率重新当选的时候,没人对此产生异议。

Why, one wonders, did he bother with an election at all?

有人就好奇,既然已经知道是这样的结果,Berdimuhamedov为什么还要进行重新选举?

Yet in a growing number of fragile new democracies, especially in Africa, where similarly absurd results were once common, elections have become genuine.

在民主进程缓慢进行的国家,尤其是非洲国家,这样压倒性的选举优势曾经常出现,但是现在,民主选举确实是在进步了。

Since 1991 incumbent governments or leaders have been ousted at the ballot box at least 45 times, most recently in Nigeria, Ghana, the Gambia and Lesotho.

从1991年以来,在尼日尼亚、加纳、冈比亚、莱索托等国家,当权政府和领导人已经被从选举箱中除名至少45次。

Nerves still jangle at election time, especially when the outcome is likely to be close, patronage and corruption are pervasive, and rigging and violence have blighted previous ballots.

但是在选举期间,人们还是会担心,尤其是选举结果即将出炉的时候。在这期间,到处都是赞助和腐败,徇私舞弊和暴力也会影响先前的投票结果。

A fraudulent election can tarnish a country's reputation, threaten its stability, and deter investment and aid.

一次掺有欺诈的选举会破坏一个国家的声誉、危害它的安全、阻挡外国投资和援助。

Kenya, whose voters go to the polls on August 8th, is just such a case.

8月8日,即将进行选举的肯尼亚就是个例子。

Violence after an election in 2007 left at least 1,300 dead and 700,000 displaced.

2007年选举之后的暴乱,导致1300民众死亡,70万人流离失所。

The country is the economic and strategic hub of east Africa, so a credible election this time matters not only to Kenyans but to many beyond their borders.

作为非洲东部的经济和战略中心,肯尼亚选举的影响波及很多国家。

Foreign and local observers will be vital to ensuring a clean contest in such a “transitional democracy”.

肯尼亚国内外观察员在保证透明选举这件事上,起着至关重要的作用。

In the bad old days no one (except the hapless citizens of the countries concerned) seemed to care much if elections were rigged, provided they were more or less peaceful.

在过去,只要选举能够和平进行,就没有人(除了那些关心国家的“倒霉蛋”们)在乎它是否公平公正的。

International monitors would swan in a few days before the poll and—more negligently—fly out again a day or two after it, often declaring the election to have been “free and fair” because they had seen voters cast their ballots without violence.

国际监管员们在选举之前只会到处瞎晃,他们还会粗心地在选举之后的几天后就飞离,然后说此次选举非常的“公平公正”,因为他们看到选民们是在没有爆发冲突的时候投的票。

No matter that fraud and bad blood often increase after polling day.

之后就再也不管选举之后留下的烂摊子。

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 脆弱民主制度下的选举图2

The likes of Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe prefer monitors from the African Union, who in the past have endorsed suspect results (they have recently become a bit more rigorous).

像津巴布韦总统Robert Mugabe这样的人,更喜欢赞成可疑票数的非洲联盟监管员(现在他们已经更谨慎了)。

More ambitious places, such as Kenya and Ghana, crave the imprimatur of the European Union and respected American outfits, notably the National Democratic Institute, the International Republican Institute and the Carter Centre.

但是想更进一步发展的国家,例如肯尼亚和加纳,就更信任欧洲和美国的监管队伍,尤其是美国国家民主协会、国际共和研究所和卡特中心。

Nowadays foreign monitoring teams start to arrive a good month before the big day and stay for at least a month after it.

现在国际监管队伍会在选举之前一个月就到达当地,并且在选举结束之后的一个月再离开。

The outsiders help in several ways.

这些“外人”起到了不小的作用。

They provide expertise on technology, especially concerning the registration of voters and the method of vote-counting.

他们能够提供专门的,尤其是涉及票数登记和记录的技术。

Monitors also help co-ordinate “parallel vote tabulation”, whereby samples of the results from randomly selected polling stations are collected and presented quickly to prevent fraud in the later counting process.

他们还能够帮助协调“并行投票列表”,由此从投票站随机抽取的样本能够及时收取和陈列,也就能够减少计票环节的欺诈行为。

Crucially, foreign monitors support local watchdogs who do most of the work and face the GREatest risks.

最重要的是,国际监管员能够给冒险监察选举的人提供庇护。

Foreigners alone cannot ensure fair elections.

但是仅仅靠国际监管员是远远不够的。

They rely on the co-operation of local governments, to gain access to the entire process, including the voters' register.

他们需要当地政府的支持来参与包括选举人的登记过程在内的投票全过程。

But they can raise the bar against rigging.

这样他们也能更好地减少滥用私权问题。

Beyond constraining the incumbents' power, their scrutiny can build popular trust in the elections—and make it easier for losers to accept defeat.

除了限制当权者的权力之外,他们的审查还能在选举过程中营造相互信任的氛围,也让败选者们更能接受结果。

It is an expensive business, but worthwhile.

这是一笔昂贵的买卖,但值得。

Worryingly, the Trump administration is trying to slash the State Department's budget which helps support democracy, including election monitors.

令人担忧的是特朗普政府正试图削减中央政府的预算,这些预算主要用于支持民主,包括选举监督。

Congress is right to resist such cuts.

国会拒绝这样的要求是正确的。

Fair elections make Africa more stable.

公平的选举保证了非洲的平稳。

Giving up on them spreads anger and poison around the world.

放弃他们就等于在全世界散布愤怒和毒药。

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