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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 广告探索消费者的本能

2017年12月08日13:10 来源:互联网
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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 广告探索消费者的本能图1

Advertising——Nothing more than feelings

广告:仅仅是感情的眷顾

Admen have made a marketing guru of Daniel Kahneman, a prizewinning psychologist

广告人成就了营销大师丹尼尔·卡尼曼,一个获奖的心理学家。

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FIRST, you realise it's a gorilla.

首先,你会看到这是一只大猩猩。

The opening strains of Phil Collins's In the Air Tonight are playing; the beast is enraptured.

菲尔·克斯林令人心潮澎湃的著作《今晚夜空中》的旋律在回响,这只猩猩也随之眉飞色舞。

As the camera pulls back, you see that he's seated at a drum kit.

随着镜头的拉近,你会看到它坐在一套架子鼓旁,

He flexes, raises his drumsticks, then brings them resoundingly down. Only in the final frames do you discover that the gorilla is pitching Cadbury's Dairy Milk chocolate.

它弯下身体,举起它的鼓槌,一锤击下,全场轰动。只有在最后一幅画面你才会看出,大猩猩所代言的是吉百利牛奶巧克力。

The advert, released in 2007, should not have worked.

该广告发布于2007年,本不该有如此效果。

Conventional wisdom doubted that a jolt of joy from a drumming primate, however rhythmically gifted, would spur sales of chocolate bars.

传统的智慧认为,灵长类动物击鼓带来的欢乐震撼,即使具有节奏天赋,也不会刺激巧克力棒的销售增加。

A member of the team that developed the ad says that when it was passed to Millward Brown, the world's biggest tester of adverts, the firm found that it scored poorly among women on its measures of awareness and brand appeal and about average among men.

但开发广告的一位成员说,当把这份创意交给世界上最大的广告测试公司明略行之后,他们发现,相对意识和号召力这种创意的成功度在女人中效果更好,在男人中也保持均衡。

Yet Cadbury went ahead, and was rewarded with millions of online views, better perceptions of its brand and higher sales.

于是,吉百利说干就干,数百万的网上观点作为回报,为该公司赢得了更好的声誉和更高的销售额。

Return on investment was three times the average for packaged-goods marketing campaigns.

回报是为包装商品所做营销花费的三倍。

Behind Cadbury's simian success was an unlikely inspiration:

吉百利大猩猩的成功,来源于一种不太可能的灵感:

Daniel Kahneman, a psychologist who won a Nobel Prize in 2002 for showing that people are not the rational agents that economists had thought they were. He argues, most famously in Thinking, Fast and Slow, a 2011 book popularising his work, that the mind incorporates two systems:

丹尼尔·卡尼曼,一位因2002年展现过市民不理性行为而获得过诺贝尔奖的心理学家。他在2011年推广他工作的书中提出了最著名的观点,思考,快与慢,也就是说,思维由两个系统组成:

an intuitive system one, which makes many decisions automatically, and a calculating but lazy system two, which rationalises system one's ideas and sometimes overrules them.

一个是直观的系统一,会自动做出许多决定;一个是精确但懒惰的系统二,将观点系统化,甚至有时会推翻它们。

For Mr Kahneman's disciples advertising is above all a way to groom system one, to nudge consumers towards a buy.

对于卡曼尼先生的弟子来说,广告首先是一种方式来培养体系,以引导消费者的购买。

Going through the emotions

情感判断

Kahnemanite advertising prizes emotion over information and pays more attention to a brand's purpose than to its products.

Kahnemanite将广告情感倾注在信息上,而且更注重品牌目的而不是它的产品。

It exploits system one's propensity to react to subtle cues.

它利用系统中一个倾向反应的微妙暗示。

In a print advert for a Betty Crocker pie, a version with the fork placed on the right triggered a 20% higher purchase intent than one with the fork on the left.

贝蒂克罗克馅饼的印刷广告就是如此,其中一个版本是将叉子放在右边的购买意向比放在左边多出了20%,因为大多数人吃饭都是用右手。

This demands not just new ways of making adverts but new methods for judging if they will work.

这就要求制作广告不仅需要新创意,而且需要新途径来判断创意是否有效。

Researchers must laser in on measuring emotion as almost the single metric that predicts success, says John Kearon of BrainJuicer, a market-research firm.

市场研究公司BrainJuicer的约翰说,研究人员必须能够成功预测情感几乎是单一衡量指标的创意效果。

This season's crop of televisual tear-jerkers reflects such thinking.

本季电视节目产物正是那种催人泪下的电影也反应了这样的思想。

A sweaty game of wheelchair basketball ends with all the players but one walking out of the gym.

一场酣畅淋漓的轮椅篮球比赛最终以除一人之外,所有人都走出体育馆而告终。

The choices we make reveal the true nature of our character, intones the voice-over, in the hope that one of those choices will be to drink Guinness stout.

画外音这样吟诵道,人的本质悬置在人的选择之中希望人们会选择健力士黑啤。

In the gauzy Christmas offering of Britain's Royal Mail, posties of many colours deliver parcels in all weathers, accompanied by an a cappella rendition of the Beatles' All You Need is Love.

英国皇家邮政提供的圣诞产品中,邮递员在各种气候穿着多种颜色的衣服递送包裹,伴随着披头士《所有你需要的就是爱》的无伴奏合唱演绎。

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 广告探索消费者的本能图2

Of course, admen were aiming at system one long before they had heard of it: sex sells is one of the oldest mottos in the business, after all.

当然,广告人们一直致力于一个系统,甚至在他们听说它之前,就是性销售,这毕竟是在商业上最古老的的格言。

Even information-packed adverts that seem to be appealing to reason are really playing on emotions, points out Mr Kahneman, who does not give advice to marketers.

卡尼曼先生指出,甚至是信息包装广告,吸引人的真正原因也是在玩情绪游戏,但他从不给营销提供意见。

His followers are inclined to dispense with system two altogether.

他的追随者们更倾向于将两个系统分配到一起。

Marketers at Procter & Gamble, maker of Tide detergent and Pampers nappies, were trained to get across the single benefit that a product would give its purchaser, says Jim Stengel, a former marketing chief at the firm, now a consultant.

宝洁,汰渍洗衣粉和帮宝适尿不湿的营销人员,都经过过产品给予买方单方利润的培训,公司的前任首席执行官吉姆·腾格尔这样说道,他现在是一个顾问。

There was not a whole lot of recognition of emotional connection with a brand or company.

没有一种情感能联接所有的品牌与公司。

But that has changed.

但是,这已经改变了。

P&G's tribute to athletes' mothers during last year's Olympics was aimed directly at the syrupy soul of system one.

去年奥运会期间宝洁对母亲的赞颂已经成为系统的灵魂。

Rare is the marketer today who does not spout systemic terminology,

在今天的市场,罕见的是谁不使用系统的技巧。

but there are disaGREements over how to divine what system one is feeling, and over the role of system two.

但是在如何分辨两个系统谁表达情感的问题上依然存在分歧。

In testing an advert before it goes to market, BrainJuicer asks subjects to say which of eight faces, each expressing a different emotion, best reflects the feeling it arouses and how intense it is.

在一个广告进入系统之前的测试中,BrainJuicer要求受试者说明是哪八个方面,每一面如何表达不同的情感,最能唤起什么样的感情和怎么唤起的。

The firm tested the gorilla advert after its release.

在发布之后,该公司测试了大猩猩广告,

It scored the highest emotional-intensity marks of any advert to that point.

它在情感强度上超越其他广告得到了最高分,因为观众在看到这一点时感到快乐和惊喜。

Decode, a rival, uses implicit association, in which subjects associate images and their reactions are timed.

解码,是一个运用内隐联想的对手,将图像和概念的联系认为是定时的,

The faster the response, the deeper the link between the two.

响应越快,两者的联系越深。

Decode, acting independently of Cadbury, found that the gorilla advert conjured up security and enjoyment better than a less-popular successor involving drag-racing trucks, which had unchocolatey overtones of adventure.

在吉百利独立的选择了大猩猩广告后,解码发现,这个广告所带来的安全和享受的体验比一个具有冒险色彩的不太流行的卡车竞速赛的效果更佳。

Some say the most telling signals are biological.

有人说,最有说服力的标志是生物。

Neuro-Insight, an Australian outfit, monitors electrical activity in viewers' brains.

用澳大利亚的神经洞察装备来监视观众的大脑活动时,

When viewers watched the Cadbury advert, signals that suggested images were being stored in long-term memory peaked three times:

当观众看了吉百利广告,其结果显示图像被储存在长期记忆中最多有三次,

when subjects recognised a gorilla, when they saw the drums and, encouragingly for Cadbury, when the brand appeared.

而当受试者认出大猩猩,当他们再看到打鼓时,脑海里就会有鼓舞人心的吉百利品牌出现。

Millward Brown has always probed for emotional responses, insists Graham Page, its head of consumer neuroscience.

Millward Brown公司一直在探讨情绪反应,坚持格雷厄姆页,也就是其头部消费神经科学。

People are aware of their feelings, so it is legitimate to discover them by asking questions.

人们都能意识到自己的感情,所以更合理的是通过有效的提问来发现。

The new biometric techniques are useful for finding out how people came to feel as they do.

新的生物识别技术可以找出人们产生感觉的来源,

Mr Page says Millward Brown has worked more with them than any other firm.

佩奇先生说,Millward Brown已经比其他任何公司做的都多了。

Furthermore, he says, do not underrate system two.

此外,他说,不要低估系统二,

It usually interacts with the system-one response to reach a decision.

它通常与系统一回应互动来达成一项决议,

That is why passengers overcome their reflexive aversion to some budget airlines; guided by hard-headed system two, they buy the cheap tickets.

这也就是为什么乘客会克服自己的厌恶而选择一些廉价的航空公司,被系统二的冷静头脑所指导,买了更便宜的机票。

Still, Mr Page admits, researchers used to focus too much on thinking.

不过,佩琪先生承认,研究人员在思考上关注的太多。

Now Millward Brown is as keen as anyone to plumb consumers' instincts.

现在Millward Brown向其他人一样热心的探索消费者的本能。

There is an irony in this. Most readers of Mr Kahneman's bestseller will end up mistrusting system one for its propensity to mislead.

关于这一点,还有这样一个讽刺。卡尼曼先生的畅销书读者最终会因系统一的误导倾向而被迷惑。

Not marketing folk. System one craves chocolate.

没有营销的民俗。系统一迫切的需要巧克力。

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