网站导航     在线客服  
全部
3招解救GRE背单词特困生
   首页    GRE   备考心经   GRE资料   正文
学生选择在小站备考:30天 3182468名,今日申请5095人    备考咨询 >>

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 美国有前科人员难找工作

2017年10月12日11:15 来源:互联网
参与(1) 阅读(455)
摘要:GRE阅读备考,考生最缺乏的不是各类练习资料,而是对于原版专业读物的阅读量积累。阅读眼界不够开阔,面对陌生话题的文章就容易出现各种水土不服。为了避免这种情况发生影响得分,小站编辑为大家每日更新精选GRE原版阅读资料。

想看上一篇双语阅读?点这里>>英国税收或将再创新高

想看下一篇双语阅读?点这里>>俄罗斯干涉美国大选余波未平

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 美国有前科人员难找工作图1

Prisoners and Jobs——Going Straight

囚犯与工作:直截了当

Banning employers from asking about criminal records may not work.

禁止雇主要求犯罪记录可能并不奏效。

这篇阅读材料还有MP3音频哦!下载>>传送门

Dion got his first paying job at 14—which would be admirable, except that he was selling crack cocaine.

迪恩在他十四岁时就得到了第一份工作,这本是件极好的事,只可惜他做的工作是销售强效可卡因。

He spent much of his early adulthood bouncing between prison and the streets of Yonkers, in New York state.

他成年后几年内的大部分时间都辗转在监狱和纽约扬克斯市的街道上。

Then, a few months out of one four-year spell behind bars, he discovered GREyston bakery.

然后,在结束一段四年刑期后的几个月后他找到了格雷斯顿面包房。

Founded by a Jewish engineer-turned-Buddhist monk, Greyston practices “non-judgment”.

其犹太裔创办人以前是工程师,后来信奉佛教,格雷斯顿面包房遵从“不做评判”的原则。

To get a job, people need only provide their names and telephone numbers, and turn up on time when a vacancy arises.

想要获得工作,人们只需要提供姓名和电话号码,然后在有空缺的时候准时出现就可以了。

Most companies are far more discerning, particularly when it comes to people like Dion.

但大多数公司雇人时都会更加挑剔,尤其是对待像戴恩这样的人。

Perhaps half of America's private-sector employers ask job applicants to declare their criminal records, and two-thirds routinely run checks before taking people on.

在美国,可能有一半的私营企业老总在招聘员工时,会问及他们的犯罪记录,三分之二的老总会在雇用员工之前,对他们进行例行调查。

They see it as necessary due diligence.

他们认为这是必要的,是在尽职尽责。

Unfortunately, checks that individual firms believe to be prudent are collectively bad for the 7m Americans who have spent time in prison and the 70m with a criminal record—numbers that may increase if Jeff Sessions, the hardline attorney-general, pushes through tougher sentencing rules.

但是,有700万美国人曾经坐过牢,7000万美国人有过犯罪记录,如果强硬的司法部长杰夫·塞辛斯推行更加严格的判刑原则,人数可能还会更多。

Keeping convicts away from jobs may also be harming America.

这些私人企业认为是小心谨慎的做法对这些人来说总体上是坏事。罪犯找不到工作同样可能也会危害美国。

Nearly half of all ex-prisoners re-offend within their first year of release—a share that might be lower if more found honest work.

将近一半有前科的人在他们刑满释放一年内会再次犯罪,如果他们中的更多人可以找到一份正当的工作,这个比例可能会降低。

The Centre for Employment Opportunities, a charity, places former convicts in 75-day work programmes.

就业机会中心作为一个慈善机构,为那些有前科的人提供了一个75天的工作项目。

Participants are paid daily and receive help to find permanent jobs.

参与者按日领取薪水,并可以通过机构帮助找到一份长期的工作。

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 美国有前科人员难找工作图2

A randomised controlled trial in which 977 former prisoners who came through the charity's doors either received the full complement of services or very few suggested that the intervention cuts reoffending by 19 percentage points.

一个随机的对照实验以977位进入了这个慈善机构的有前科的人作为研究对象,结果表明,无论他们接受了全部服务,还是只接受了一点儿,这种干预使再犯罪率降低了19%。

In an effort to force employers to change, 26 state and 150 municipal legislatures have adopted “ban the box” legislation that removes declarations of criminal history from job-application forms.

为了设法迫使雇主做出改变,26个州和150个市的立法机构通过了一项立法,把犯罪记录声明的复选框从工作申请表中移除。

On April 1st an executive order by Barack Obama's administration came into effect, banning the box for all federal jobs, amounting to 250,000 jobs a year.

4月1日,奥巴马政府出台的行政命令生效,为所有联邦岗位取消这个复选框,总数为一年二十五万个工作岗位。

Banning the box may, however, have unfortunate consequences.

然而,这项举措或许也造成了一些不尽如人意的后果。

Two American academics, Amanda Agan and Sonja Starr, have studied the effect of bans in New Jersey and New York.

Amanda Agan 和 Sonja Star两位美国学者研究了禁令在新泽西和纽约的效果。

They created dummy job applicants with typically black names like Jermaine and Malcolm, and tracked how employers responded to those beside dummy applicants with typically white names, such as Cody and Scott.

他们用典型的黑人名字比如Jermaine和Malcolm创造了虚拟的工作申请,对比用典型白人名字比如Cody和Scott制作的工作申请,然后追踪雇主的反应。

They found that whereas black men with invented criminal histories received more responses from companies after the change in the law, black men without criminal histories received fewer.

他们发现,自从法律规定改变之后,拥有犯罪记录的黑人反而比没有犯罪记录的黑人得到更多公司的关注。

Presumably, some employers began to interpret black-sounding names as a signal of criminality.

大概是一些雇主开始把疑似的黑人名字解读为犯罪的信号。

Two things might, however, persuade employers to change their minds.

但是或许有两件事情能迫使雇主们改变想法。

First, negligent-hiring lawsuits—in which a firm is sued for employing someone who commits a crime at work—are terrifying but rare.

第一,雇佣过失诉讼——公司因为雇佣在工作中犯罪的人而遭到诉讼——虽然后果严重但其实很少出现。

Second, it is just possible that former convicts might be more productive than the other candidates who apply for a particular job.

其次,有前科的人可能在申请某些特定的工作时比其他候选人更具有竞争力。

Devah Pager, a sociologist at Harvard University, has tracked the performance of 8,000 formerfelons who entered the American army after passing a screening process in the years between 2002 and 2009.

哈佛大学的社会学家Devah Pager追踪调查了8000位重罪犯,他们在2002年到2009年间通过筛选程序进入了美国军队。

She finds that the ex-cons were slightly more likely to be undisciplined but were also promoted unusually quickly.

她发现有前科的人虽然都稍微较不守纪律,但是他们晋升速度却快得出奇。

Is that just a quirk of military culture?

难道这只是军队文化造成的怪相吗?

It would be worth finding out.

这非常值得探寻。

更多GRE双语阅读文章汇总>>点击这里

大家都在学

看完这篇文章有何感觉?已经有1人表态,100%的人喜欢

相关文章

10大不容错过的GRE热门备考资料 告别题海战术 GRE阅读题源大公开-全美精选报刊杂志免费下... 2017备考GRE 热门资料下载排行榜 2017最新GRE模考软件大点评 使用注意事项全汇总 GRE考试题型全解析 详细到让你不敢相信 2017GRE阅读备考 解题技巧助你冲刺高分 【7月新GRE机经】考前小范围精准预测7月8日GRE考试真... ETS推出GRE官方指南OG第三版 各版本差异名师详尽分析
【小站GRE官网】GRE考试为您提供最新GRE备考全方位资料,GRE机经预测,GRE作文、语文、数学、阅读、填空、等价、词汇等真题下载,更有最新GRE官方资讯、报名注册等海量权威信息,以及备考方案、考生交流等贴心服务和热门学习活动。
版权申明| 隐私保护| 意见反馈| 联系我们| 关于我们| 网站地图| 最新资讯

©{beginDate}-{endDate} ZHAN.com All Rights Reserved. {hbText}