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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 纽约铁路线不规范影响经济

2017年10月09日09:56 来源:互联网
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【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 纽约铁路线不规范影响经济图1

Transport in New York——On the Wrong Track

纽约的交通:歧途

Local railways are in bad shape - threatening the regions economy.

纽约铁路线不规范——地方经济将受影响。

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On March 24th an Amtrak train derailed in New York's Penn station, hitting a regional commuter-line train.

3月24日,美铁一辆火车在纽约佩恩火车站脱轨,撞上了当地通勤线上的一辆火车。

The resulting delay affected 250,000 passengers on the Long Island Railroad (LIRR) and New Jersey Transit, commuter lines which share Amtrak's tunnels and tracks in and around Penn Station.

结果导致长岛铁路和新泽西公交公司上的25万名乘客滞留车站,而在佩恩站周边的这条通勤线是美铁隧道和轨道共用着。

Ten days later another Amtrak train derailed, this time taking out a set of points and eight of Penn station's 21 tracks.

10天后,美铁又有火车脱轨,这次脱轨带来了一系列的问题,让佩恩站的8辆火车都受到了影响。

The delays and cancellations lasted a week.

因为这次事件,这条通勤线的运行停止了一周。

Then on April 14th, just as the Easter weekend began, a New Jersey Transit train got stuck for three hours in an approach tunnel.

接着在4月14日,就是在复活节周末开始的时候,新泽西公交公司的一辆火车又在隧道里被困了3个小时。

This caused long delays on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) the busiest passenger railway line in the country.

这使得国内东北走廊最繁忙的客运专线长时间堵塞。

On the same day a false report of gunfire at Penn triggered a stampede in which 16 were hurt.

同一天内,有关佩恩站的错误枪击报告引发了一场骚乱,导致16人受伤。

New York's tabloids now call America's dingy, claustrophobic and busiest railway terminus “Pain Station”.

因此,纽约小报现在把这个肮脏的、封闭而最繁忙的火车总站称为是“疼痛站”。

The station's 600,000 daily users will soon feel more pain.

然而这座车站的日均60万乘客们在此之后还得面对更多麻烦。

Amtrak, which owns and operates the station, tracks and tunnels, said last month that it will need to shut down tracks to do repairs.

车站铁轨及隧道的运营公司Amtrak(美国国家铁路客运公司)上个月有说到将暂时停止铁轨运行,以进行检修。

These will take place over 44 days, mainly weekdays, in the summer.

这项工程预计耗时超过44天,而且大多数都是夏季的工作日进行。

The Partnership for New York City, which represents large companies, estimates that every hour of delay to commuters from Long Island and New Jersey costs Manhattan employers $14.5m.

代表着大公司利益的纽约是合作中心估计,从长岛到新泽西的员工每延误或滞留一个小时,就将给曼哈顿的老板们造成1450万美元的损失。

The Northeast Corridor Commission, created by ConGREss, estimates that every day the NEC is out of service costs $100m in lost economic activity.

由国会组建的东北走廊委员会估计,纽约每停工一天,各项经济活动损失将达到1亿美元。

Yet repairs are badly needed.

然而,检修问题确实是亟待解决的。

【每日晨读】经济学人GRE双语阅读 纽约铁路线不规范影响经济图2

The two tunnels under the Hudson river, which serve the station and the main NEC arteries, are a century old and move with the tides.

哈德逊河(Hudson)下的两条隧道服务于车站和东北走廊(NEC)客运要道,长达百年之久且随潮汐而动。

Like the rest of the network, they suffer from over-use and chronic under-investment.

与其他交通网络情况类似的是,这些隧道在投资不足的情况下被过度压榨。

Damage caused by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 has not yet been repaired.

2012年“Sandy”飓风造成的破坏至今都没有修复。

Another storm, a tunnel crack or a high-speed derailment would be catastrophic.

而当另一次风暴降临之时,遂道崩塌或高速列车出轨都将是灾难性的。

Richard Barone of the Regional Plan Association, a think-tank, puts it bluntly: “We're operating on borrowed time.”

区域规划协会智囊团的一员Richard Barone直截了当地说:“我们在透支未来。”

The NEC is, however, the only part of Amtrak that turns a profit.

然而,东北走廊却是美国铁路客运公司的唯一利益来源。

Amtrak is an odd entity, a commercial service which has its board appointed by the president and receives funding from Congress.

“美铁”是一个古怪的实体,它具有商业服务性,其中的董事会由总统任命并接受国会的拨款。

Since the funding comes annually, Amtrak struggles to have a multi-year capital plan.

由于有了每年一次的资金拨款,“美铁”试图制定本来要数年才能完成的资本计划。

With a repairs backlog estimated at $28bn, and tunnels and track needing upgrades all over the region, it cannot do much beyond basic maintenance.

维修积压的工程估约28亿美元,整个地区的隧道轨道需要升级,除了基本的维护之外,公司没有多余的资金做其他项目。

Congress is said to be increasing Amtrak funding to $1.5bn this year, $105m more than last year.

今年国会决定给“美铁”增加资金至15亿美元,比去年多了1.05亿美元。

That is pretty small beer where railway tunnels under rivers are concerned.

可是,这笔资金对于水下铁轨的工程来说是微不足道的。

The proposed Gateway tunnel, a new $24bn rail link between Newark, New Jersey and New York City under the Hudson river, would help to ease pressure on the network.

这项拟定的盖特韦隧道项目,是在哈德逊和下建起连接纽瓦克,新泽西和纽约市的一条轨道,耗资240亿美元,这个项目将会减轻整个交通运输网负担。

Last year the federal government agreed to split the cost with New York, New Jersey and Amtrak.

去年联邦政府同意与纽约,新泽西和纽瓦克分摊工程费用。

But little federal money has been spotted yet.

然而至今,还没有收到联邦政府承诺的资金。

Meanwhile, the subway is still operating on a 1930s signal system; Eastside Access, a plan to bring some LIRR riders to Grand Central station, is delayed; the bus terminal needs a complete overhaul; the area's three major airports are at capacity.

同时,地铁仍然还使用着20世纪30年代的信号系统;Eastside Access——本来计划将长岛铁路乘客送往中央火车站的项目将被延迟;公交车终点站需要全面地翻修,这个地区的三个主要机场也需要全面开工。

But getting big projects built in New York is a costly, lengthy enterprise thanks, in part, to expensive labour and over-regulation.

然而在纽约建造大型项目是一项耗资巨大、时间长的打算,在一定程度上是因为昂贵的劳动力和过度的监管。

The Second Avenue subway, the first new line in decades, cost $5.5bn for four miles of track and three new stations.

地铁第二大道——数十年来第一条新型线路将会在四英里铁轨及三个新建火车站方面将花费5.5亿美元。

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