- 2017年05月25日16:46 来源：小站整理
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African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.
The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
A. African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the materialistic.
B. African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual and the environment.
C. African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.
D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African American drama.
E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.
2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the
A. internal rather than the external life of her characters
B. madness of reality rather than the effects of reality
C. effects of materialism on African American minds and souls
D. relationship between naturalism and the human spirit
E. effects that her characters have on the environment
3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors assertion that Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?
A. Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nevertheless unfamiliar to the average viewer or reader.
B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United States.
C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.
D. Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.
E. Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.
Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her non sentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values. Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality. However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the contradiction mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. It was not generally addressed by critics before the 1970s.
B. It is apparent in only a small number of Ferns writings.
C. It has troubled many feminist critics who study Fern.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Tompkins would be most likely to agree with which of the following about the critics mentioned in the passage?
A. They accurately characterize the overall result Fern is aiming to achieve.
B. They are not as dismissive of Fern as some feminist critics have suggested.
C. They exaggerate the extent to which Fern intended her writing to serve a social purpose.
D. They wrongly assume that sentimental must be a pejorative term.
E. They fail to recognize the role that sentimental rhetoric plays to reader’s emotions.